Abordaje inicial del traumatismo craneoencefálico en servicios de emergencias con recursos limitados

Artículo de Revisión

Autores/as

  • Edwin Revelo-Ochoa
  • Jenny Sandoval-Flores Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas

Resumen

El traumatismo craneoencefálico es una de las lesiones más frecuentes en adultos politraumatizados a nivel mundial, afectando de manera desproporcionada a los países con economías de medianos y bajos ingresos en América latina. Objetivo: Revisar la literatura actual propuesta para la atención de pacientes con traumatismo cráneo encefálico en estos escenarios y estructurar un resumen de apoyo a la toma de decisiones dirigido a médicos de emergencia que enfrentan esta patología con limitantes de diagnóstico y tratamiento. Materiales y métodos: revisión teórica. Fuentes de información: National library of medicine, Biomed Central, Wiley Online Library, Pubmed Central, SciELO, Dialnet, Springer, Elsevier. Se incluyeron estudios relacionados con el traumatismo cráneo encefálico en adultos entre los 18 a 65 años, revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis, estudios observacionales y protocolos para el manejo de lesión cerebral traumática en países con limitados recursos. Resultados: 41 artículos cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. 46,3% (n=19) publicados entre 2020 a 2022; el 29,2% (n=12) publicados entre 2018 a 2019; El 31,7% (n=13) son revisiones sistemáticas; El 24,3% (n= 10) son protocolos de consenso; la mayoría fue identificada en Pubmed central (PMC: n=26; 63,4%). Conclusiones: La evaluación clínica enfocada, lo cambios en la puntuación motora de la escala de coma de Glasgow, la ecografía de la vaina del nervio óptico y la tomografía simple de cráneo proporcionan información que aumenta la probabilidad pretest de hipertensión intracraneal en pacientes adultos con traumatismo cráneo encefálico facilitando el inicio precoz de medidas para limitar la lesión cerebral secundaria.

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2023-01-17

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Revelo-Ochoa, E. ., & Sandoval-Flores, J. (2023). Abordaje inicial del traumatismo craneoencefálico en servicios de emergencias con recursos limitados: Artículo de Revisión. Ciencia Ecuador, 5(21 (ENERO-MARZO), 1/23. Recuperado a partir de https://cienciaecuador.com.ec/index.php/ojs/article/view/118

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Ciencias de la Vida, Ciencias Biológicas y Ciencias de la Salud